Thursday, July 20, 2017

April 3, 1910

April in Augusta-- it is hard to think of anything besides The Masters. Yet, in 1910, the first Masters Champion, Horton Smith will be turning 2 years old. 1934 is still 24 years and hundreds of golf games away.

April 3rd is a Sunday and families are waking up to a spring day. The weather forecast is "fair. Winds variable." 

The first page of the newspaper is an advertisement for J.B. White's. Any Augustan reading this is smiling right now at the memory of the old department store. In typical modern fashion, the department store building downtown fell into disrepair, housed whatever was out there before meth dens, and has since been purchased and renovated into condos where you can't buy sofas and furniture anymore, rather- you can place your sofa and furniture in your yuppy downtown loft.

I have to dig past articles titled things like:

Asheville Lady Killed by Lightening

Oratorical Contest in Laurens Co.

Ireland to have Aviation Meet

... the kiddy page...

... the poetry corner...

The Washington DC Society column

Past all these and then some, all the way to page 10 is the first mention of this ground breaking, earth shattering, life chaining information that there has been an actual arrest based on real evidence. Next to the Want Ads and an advertisement looking for a laundress at Steam Co. is the article that proves justice can be served, sorta.

AS HE TRIED TO PAWN DR. C.W. HICKMAN'S WATCH 
NEGRO WAS SEIZED BY MR. HARRY SHAPIRO 
IN THE PAWN SHOP OF MR. MAX TUNKLE
"I have Dr. C.W. Hickman's Watch," the only statement which Chief of Police Elliott would make. 
James Mathis, Col., negro [sic] who offered watch for pawn

And this, fair readers, is where we really to get to the point of all this. We have real live evidence that can actually be used in court in front of a judge. Again...Sorta.

When first arrested negro [sic] said he had bought the watch at the Georgia-Carolina Fair months before Dr. Hickman was assassinated- Warrants sworn out for negro woman-- negro woman underwent "sweating" process by police chief-- all night investigation at the barracks-- after examination of hours, negro [sic] put in county jail



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So, my kids didn't want to nap today. They voted it down, so you're just going to have to wait. My sincerest apologies.

While  you are waiting, have you ever thought about clicking on any of those advertisements on the right hand side? I get paid when you do that. Especially when you buy something. It's not much, a few pennies here and there, but it adds up. 

Consider supporting our sponsors. You don't have to, but it'll help pass the time until tomorrow's nap time. If you really want to support the sponsors, go to the "EVER" link and check out the skincare. It's good stuff. I use it and love it. That really helps a gal out. Okay, that's it for my shameless plug.

Until tomorrow, fair readers! Until then... 



Wednesday, July 19, 2017

More Evidence

So often throughout this research I have been doing, I can't help but think about Atticus and Boo Radley. More so, the details of To Kill a Mockingbird and the symbology therein. I think about something Mr. Buckley, our esteemed Lit teacher, told us as we were reading the trial scenes:

It didn't matter how poor of a white man you were in the 1930s, it was still better than being a black man.

Ouch.

I digress.

An eye witness has miraculously been found but hardly mentioned. I only read about him once, in one article, found below the fold on the first page. He was less than 150 yards from the murder- that is about the length of a football field and a half. In my mind, that does not seem so big.

At night.

On a 33% moon.

Without any street lights.

My eye witness sounds a bit more like an "ear" witness. Better still, I looked at my map from 1920 and marked where 450 feet would be for the radius of this eye witness... (forgive my circle, I drew the line at nerdiness when it came to the use of a protractor.)


Don't worry about those names just yet-- focus on the blue box in the middle. That's where the murder took place. That diamond looking circle is the 450 foot radius of where the eye witness was. It's safe to say that a 

The eye witness, Dennis Wigfall, was a negro [sic] boy just 15 years old. He actually saw two of the shots being fired-- the muzzle blast for those that don't know much about guns. (FYI: MIT did a study on sight several years ago and it was determined that the human eye can see a candle flickering up to 30 miles away in the right conditions) Dennis also stated that he saw no one crossing the street. 

Rev. Johnson passed the scene preceded by the negro [sic] about 40 seconds before Dr. Hickman was killed. The negro [sic] was returning when he saw two of the flashes from the pistol, fired directly from the grove or thicket across the sidewalk. These details are pulled from an article called "Agreed that Lone Foot Pad Killed Him to Rob Him."

Also, it was determined that at least two people passed the area where Dr. Hickman was murdered before the murder occurred at the edge of the Mr. A. DeWitte Cochrane property. The henchman laid in wait for Dr. Hickman.

After the murder, the perpetrator took off through the vacant lot, hopping the back fence into Tracy Hickman's backyard. On the fence, a tape line was found dangling. It was the sort usually used by carpenters or plumbers. 




What was the tape line doing? Why was it there?

One thing I forgot to mention yesterday in the coroner's report was that Dr. Hickman was not assaulted from behind, rather he saw and faced his attacker head on- falling backward. His clothing was only dirty on the back, not the front.

For Dr. Hickman's funeral, Mrs. Charles Harper of Garden City, Long Island came into town as well as Mrs. T. P. Hager of Savannah- sisters of the late doctor.


Tuesday, July 18, 2017

Coroner's Report

Dr. James Rufus Littleton, known by most as JR, was the coroner in 1910. When researching his life in 1910- I find that he was coroner on several cases. The last two:

Negro Infant Found in Cotton Field, Dead (September 26, 1910)

Alcohol Poison caused her death (December 16, 1910)
     Mrs. Nancy Anderson did not die from blow to head, Anderson states he did not strike her
             **sidenote: the only witness to this crime was the young daughter of the couple- no more than six years old. Bless that child and the woman she became.**

JR was a very busy man in 1910 as these are only 2 of the dozen plus deaths reported in the Augusta Chronicle for the year. Fast forward six years and JR will be elected mayor of the consolidated Summerville and Augusta. JR ran unopposed and followed the mayorship of Thomas Barrett, sr.-- the mayor during the time of Dr. Hickman's death.

Sometimes, you have to ask... who benefits the most from the death of a man.

Dr. Littleton died in 1925 and was a Master Mason (read: top of the Mason Food Chain). HIs funeral was carried out with Masonic burial rites as well as the rites performed by the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.

Pause. Did I just say KKK? Yes. Yes, I did. When I saw this, I took a screen shot of the death announcement and sent it to a friend; editor if you will. And said, "WHY DO I FIND THIS SO DISTURBING??" As if, in my mind, people who upheld the law and oversaw things like life and death were above racism. Foolish me. No one is above anything, be it 1910, 1925, or 2017.

Littleton was survived by his parents, wife, two sons, one daughter, and two sisters: Mrs. Mamie L. Harison [sic], and Mrs. H.I. Niven.

But, we aren't here to read about JR, rather we are here to look at the coroner's report.

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Let's start with what we know:

Dr. Hickman is still very, very dead on February 4, 1910 when the report is released.

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Now, let's look at what the coroner's report says:

When Dr. Littleton was called to receive the remains, he found Dr. Hickman lying with a bullet hole extending from the back part of the head through the front. After checking the box of "Yes, he is dead and there's a bullet hole," He returned home.

Solicitor Reynolds requested that Littleton go with the undertaker and make further examination. Off he goes to Platt's Undertaker Parlors where he decided to actually look into the case slightly further.

He removed the scalp and examined the external parts of the skull.  Above the eye and under the skin was a small, round wound. In the bone was an opening of five-eighths to half an inch. Said another way, those measurements are .625 to .5 of an inch.

Calibers of bullets are measured in decimals of inches. Remember that.

In the back of Dr. Hickman's skull is an elongated wound looking as if it had been torn, known as speculum of the bone. In the front, the bone seemed to stick inward toward the brain. In the back, the inside of the wound was smooth, round hole while on the outside bones stuck out.

The skull was cracked on the left side of the head extending irregularly toward the back. This caused Littleton to conclude that he was struck after he was shot, probably with a sandbag. This is purely  hypothetical and is only the opinion of Dr. Littleton. Following this, he further examined the left hemisphere of the brain. Using a probe, careful not to disturb the course, he found that there was a clear wound entirely through the brain. The line of the bullet was exactly perpendicular.

When asked if it were possible that the bullet going through the skull caused the cracks, he said it was possible and that it has happened before- but it is his opinion that Dr. Hickman's skull was cracked by a blow and not the result of the pistol ball or of the fall following the gunshot.

Littleton was strongly of the opinion that Hickman had been shot by a professional thug operating under the theory of 'dead men tell no tales' and needed to confirm that the job was complete.

On the right side of the frontal bone (read: forehead) a bruise which perhaps had significance in the same direction or may have been caused in falling. In addition, there was a fresh abrasion on the back of the right hand, which led Littleton to believe that the body might have been dragged or moved. This theory is exacerbated by several new scratches on the gold band ring which Dr. Hickman wore on his right hand. {this also could have been caused by trying to remove the ring}

There were no powered burns on the body or around the wound, which indicates that the shots were fired farther than five feet away. After removing the vest from the body, the little clasp used to hold a watch fob in place was found- but the watch was gone.

It was Dr. Littleton's opinion that the bullet which killed Dr. Hickman was fired from a revolver not smaller than a .38 caliber.

Great, we have a bunch of words that amount to, what, exactly?

Dr. Hickman was shot facing his assailant above his left eye. The bullet entered through the front and exited out the back of his skull. There is a wound perpendicular to the path the bullet took. This is on the left side of his skull, which is further cracked. The bruise over his right eye is peri-mortem (happened immediately preceding death) and is of an unknown origin. The bullet made a hole that is equal to a caliber of .625 to .5, double the size of .38. It is believed that a sandbag was used after he was shot to confirm that the good Doctor is, in fact, actually dead. He was shot at a distance greater than five feet as there was no gun powder on his person or surrounding the wound.

Allow me to regale you with my master drawing abilities. 

On the top of his right hand is a small abrasion- no deeper than the skin- and there are new scratches on the gold band he wore on his right hand. Based on these two facts, it is thought that he was moved or the small possibility that these are caused by trying to remove the ring. The only thing taken from Dr. Hickman was his watch.

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And that, fair readers, is the coroner's report.

I find it interesting that they said he was hit with a sandbag. When talking to my dad about this, his first question was, "Where's the sandbag? Why would he have grabbed it?"

Of all the things taken from Dr. Hickman, why would the watch be it? Why would the watch, a gold monogrammed object be taken? It is identifiable and unique to Dr. Hickman, with his initials engraved on the side. Me? I'm going for the chain and the cash. Maybe the glasses if they were gold. You can keep the thing that has his name on it.

Was this a hit and proof of death was needed? The watch was on his vest and not something that would have been easily accessible.

Have you ever heard the expression that the building can be no taller than the crane? The same is true for bullet holes- if the bullet hole is 1/2 an inch, a 3/4 inch bullet cannot make that hole. On the other hand, depending on speed and distance- a smaller bullet, say a .38 cal can make a hole twice the size. But, it has to be traveling awfully fast and from an awfully far distance.

Two more things to note:
.38 cal handguns are accurate at about 5 yards, max. This was a kill shot, expertly made.
.38 cal guns were also the gun of choice for police officers.

Saturday, July 15, 2017

Who's Lt. Stone?

Hindsight is 20/20, right? As I read through the articles, I can only think of those cartoon characters from Bugs Bunny. Bugs would pop up from his rabbit hole (see what I did there?) and all his fans would run to him pulling dust up along the way. He'd drop down and back up again somewhere else and the fans would move thusly. If you're too young for Bugs Bunny, think Whack-A-Mole.

If you're too young to know what Whack-A-Mole is, go away. You're too young to be here. Come back when middle school is complete.

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We are at February 12th, 1910 right now. Dr. Hickman is still dead, vagrants have been cleared from the city, and every negro [sic] in town is a hot suspect. Five arrests have been made and then withdrawn. Five African American Men had to find an alibi satisfactory to the witch hunt. Innocent until proven guilty is getting pretty questionable.

But, suddenly- the tides are turning. Things are looking up for the justice that Dr. Hickman is so well-deserved of. After all, he is a ... what was it... right.... ministering angel in physician's guise. The police have a legit suspect.

Like totally legit.

So legit, he is a certified lunatic. Like CER-TEE-FRIED.

Woah. This is Augusta in 1910, not Milledgeville. Ain't no loonies here. The state Asylum is 90 miles up the road.

sidenote: did you know that 2 U.S. Senators tried to abolish the word 'lunatic' from the English language in 2012? No kidding. Lunatic will be replaced by 'mentally insane' in the 1940s as 'lunatic' connotes someone who is spontaneous and dangerous. Also known as any 19 year old in college.

Who is this certified lunatic? What makes him a legit suspect besides the fact he has his papers.

Aiken, 20 miles over the river in South Carolina arrested an insane man suspected for having murdered Dr. Hickman. The warrant was issued by Chief of Police George P. Elliott. FYI: Chief of Police Elliott, seen below is the chief of police of... Augusta... Georgia. Not Aiken... South Carolina.


The warrant was issued as a precaution. [article dated 2/12/1910]

"His actions having been somewhat suspicious and that his retention under the charge of murder upon arrest by warrant is an action to prevent officers from the sanitarium in Maryland from which he escaped taking him out o the reach of the local authorities until he has been actually dismissed as a probably factor in the case. This is not an extraordinary step to have been taken when it is considered that the local authorities, and the special detectives employed in the case, have been working persistently upon ever clue, report and suspect in the neighborhood since the commission of the crime."

Long story short: They heard about a crazy guy who was in town and went ahead and arrested him so that he can't be swooped back to Maryland for a lobotomy.

First Lieutenant William C. Stone was 33 years old at the time of his arrest. Conflicting reports say he was either of the Philippine army while another says he saw service in the Philippines, Cuba, and Alaska. In 1906 he was serving in Alaska and displayed symptoms of paranoia. He was sent to Washington where he was judged to be insane and committed to the Government hospital. He was there until about 1909 and was paroled after showing signs of improvement. Released less than six months, he again showed "symptoms of insanity" and was removed to the Gundry Sanitarium at Catonsville, Maryland [Baltimore county] in August on 1909. Lasting just five months, he escaped on January 23. Dr. Gundry, head physician of the sanitarium, stated that Stone gave him no trouble and does not believe him to be associated with the Hickman murder.



Aiken police arrested poor Lt. Stone but were quoted as saying, "Stone is being held as a dummy." Over the river, ya know, back where the crime was actually committed, the opinion was that he is merely a demented man who happened to be in the neighborhood at the time of the crime.

Pause: Aiken is a forty five minute drive from where I am sitting at this exact moment. That's with the interstate and a nice fancy car with air-conditioned seats. Would you like to guess how many times I have been to Aiken in my life? Three times. Un-Pause.

It would be discovered that Lt. Stone was in Lexington, South Carolina on the night of February 2nd and February 3rd. Chief of Police, Jacob Taylor of Lexington started to place the man under arrest and later regretted not doing so. Stone came into town on foot about 9pm on February 2,1910 . First stop: Kaufmann Drug Co. where he asked where he could buy some rolls. He took this information and did not use it, rather walking in a different direction. His actions were "not right" and Policeman Taylor was thusly notified. Stone was collected by the police and questioned fully. When Stone was asked his name, he said, "That makes no difference, I'm only a friend."

In response to the question of his occupation, Stone stated he was an "organizer from the north and being short of money decided to walk around the country." Taylor asked Stone if there was any kind of money in that line of work. His response?

"Not in this country; the people were too ____ settled."

From an article dated 2/13/1910, it concludes: "He said he walked into town and was invited to walk out as soon as possible. He asked the way to the station and left whistling a soft melody. About an hour later, a freight came along and it is the opinion of the officer that Stone beat it on down the road."

When Chief Elliott was asked about the arrest, he stated that he was holding Stone for reasons best known only to himself.

Working in chorus with the police, but certainly not in conjunction, were the private investigators- the Pinkertons- hired by the family. They did not feel the arrest was of sufficient importance, thus they did not report it to the family.


There went that lead... Onward!




Apologies, I did it again

My bad. Listen, sometimes I am going to make mistakes and I need to know when I make them. Those grammatical things- comma splices being my #1 faux pas and grammar errors (then? than? and that dastardly apostrophe 's' that makes me question myself every single time) being a top 2nd can stay under your hat-- but facts? FACTS are all I have. When something is wrong, tell me!

Back to my factual error. The last blog came off the top of my head and pulled directly from memory. If you haven't pick up yet, there's a lot of detail in this murder and a heck of a lot of people. This paragraph is where the problem lies:

And herein lies my problem, I know why he was on Milledge- I just found out. But, do I tell you, fair readers, why he was there or do I let it unfold chronologically? When I tell you, do I go ahead and drop the fact that this was under suspicious circumstances? The fact that one of the officers of the Kings' Mill had a bullet hole through his door- where do I drop this little tidbit in the conversation? The Kings' Mill where, I'll have to double check my notes, T.I. Hickman- the good doctor's baby brother- is president in 1910.

 I got my mills mixed up. Shockingly, there were quite a few back then and were all within the throw of a stone. T.I. was not president of the KINGS' Mill, rather he was president of the Graniteville Mill. Tracy and Charles' father, H. H. Hickman, was president from 1867-1899 following the death of the founder- William Gregg. Tracy took over in 1899 by a unanimous vote of the board of directors. Tracy added a second mill, Hickman Mill and was forced out in 1915 when the mill went into receivership. At this point, Jacob Phinizy took over and after a few quick years was able to pull it out of receivership.

Hickman Memorial Hall- Hickman Mill is the red brick building in the background


One of the biggest things I have learned while researching this murder, as with most things, there is always more going on than the story being told.

Yesterday, Husband and I went over the coroner's report and he explained to me what some of the terms meant. As I made notes and drawings on a brain, he would look across the table and correct my errors. It was fascinating to watch his brain turn as he knows many, many things that I don't even have a clue about. Take the medical knowledge out of it. As an avid lover of hunting and guns- he was quick to call some things to my attention that brushed right by me.

Phinizy, that's not a very common name, is it?

Thursday, July 13, 2017

So, where are we?

In the past several days, I have given you the very beginnings of the information that they police and the newspaper had to give. Dr. Hickman was buried on February 4th and by that time, thousands of dollars had been generated in reward money. Governor Joseph M. Brown issued the maximum amount the state could offer towards a reward for the arrest and evidence of the culprit: $200 in 1910, which is about $5,000 in today's money.

The police have identified various nefarious characters, interrogated them before finally deeming and granting their innocence of this crime.

So now-- here we are: I have more pieces to provide, but am unsure as to how to provide them. Do I state my questions? Do I rewrite articles in verbatim? Do I list the characters and follow their trail? Do I do this whole thing chronologically? And, I have to be honest-- there is a lot of fluff in these news articles. Dr. Hickman was, apparently, a little like Jesus in the way he is described and it gives me pause- was he really as good as these articles make him out to be?

I have some excerpts from the coroner's report. When do I introduce this information? Dr. J.R. Littleton was very thorough and opened a whole new box of worms when it came to how he died, even using the expression, "Dead men tell no tales."

Only today, I read an "intimate sketch" of the distinguished physician and learned that we share the same alma mater as the majority of fellow Augustans, The Academy of Richmond County. Granted, I was in the class of 1999 and he had to have been somewhere along 1870ish as he was born in 1852. We are only 130 years apart; so close. Didn't people graduate from high school earlier back "in the day?"

The sketch of his life says that the tourists who visited the city for the season would seek him out for his counsel and knowledge... "and to those who had not the money to recompense him for his service he was a ministering angel in physician's guise."

Really? A ministering angel in physician's guise? I mean, don't get me wrong-- I think a lot of my husband and say very, very nice things about him. I put him on a pedestal, even. But, my pediatric intensive care husband, who has saved many... many lives has never been called a "ministering angel in physician's guise," at least to my knowledge. Honey, let me know if that changes, um-kay?

And then the question begs- what was he doing on Milledge Road? How did he get there? WHY did he go there? And where exactly was he murdered?

And herein lies my problem, I know why he was on Milledge- I just found out. But, do I tell you, fair readers, why he was there or do I let it unfold chronologically? When I tell you, do I go ahead and drop the fact that this was under suspicious circumstances? The fact that one of the officers of the Kings' Mill had a bullet hole through his door- where do I drop this little tidbit in the conversation? The Kings' Mill where, I'll have to double check my notes, T.I. Hickman- the good doctor's baby brother- is president in 1910.

Or, since I did not get to the conclusion faster, has everyone lost interest and I need to get back to pretty pictures of my kids?

All these questions...



Wednesday, July 12, 2017

Dr. C.W. Hickman Laid at Rest

In an article dated February 5th, 1910:

Dr. C.W. Hickman Laid at Rest

Funeral Exercises at Church of Good Shepherd-- Touching Tribute to Beloved Dead.

The saddest funeral ever witnessed in Augusta was the yesterday afternoon of Dr. Charles W. Hickman; and never in the history of the beautiful Church of the Good Shepherd was so large a crowd gathered to pay tribute to the beloved dead. Every pew in the church was filled to its full capacity; chairs were placed in the aisles and still many people were compelled to remain standing as there was no room to seat them. Even the belfry space was closely packed with sorrowing friends who wished to dignify their grief in the last and only possible manner.

Long before the appointed hour groups of quiet men and women entered the dim church and sadly took their seats; loving hands in silence brought in the beautiful flowers, placing them about the altar space. There were so many that there was scare room to place them without marring their freshness; and their beauty and sweetness intensified by contrast the atmosphere of heavy grief that lay like a palpable influence over the church.

The deep stillness was broken by the slow sound of the minister's voice as he recited the Episcopal service of the dead. The minister, the Rev. William Johnson, preceded the funeral procession up the long aisle of the church; and following him came the honorary pall-bearers, Dr. W.H. Doughty, Judge William F. Eve, Dr. W.H. Harrison, Dr. Thomas R. Wright, Dr. G.A. Wilcox, Dr. J.E. Bransford, General Alfred Cumming, Major Cumming, Major W.E. McCoy, Mr. Paul H. Langdon Sr., Mr. J.W. Dickey, and Mr. Fred Cuthbert.

As the organ sent forth the solemn notes of the funeral dirge the casket borne up the aisle by Mr. L.A. Berckmans, Mr. E.S. Johnson, Mr. George R. Sterns, Dr. L.W. Fargo, Mr. Paul Langdon Jr., and Mr. John M. Adams; and by their tender, reverent hands was placed in the midst of the fragrant flowers.

The casket was literally covered with a pall of blossoms, for white carnations, roses, sweet peas, lilies-of-the-valley, ferns and soft pink carnations drooped like a richly embroidered veil over the coffin's blackness, hiding all but the dull silver handles. To many present the magnificently beautiful covering suggested a thought of the light and flory of the life eternal into whose brightness the immortal Christian spirit had passed from the darkness of his tragic mortal death, and as the sorrowful music filled the church the tears gathered in many eyes and dropped slowly, one by one, while the minister read the prayers for the dead.

At the close of his service the choir sang, "Abide with Me," and their voices were tremendous with deep grieving that was beyond control. As the sad cortege passed from the church all remained standing until the music ceased. Then all went to the cemetery.



The long line of carriages was equalled by the two long processionals of people the passed along the street on either side; and at the cemetery everyone who had been at the church was gathered in a circle about the open grave.

The Rev. William Johnson read the burial service for the dead and at the conclusion the Rev. Ashby Jones in a low voice, that yet was distinctly audible, in the quiet City of the Dead, made a short and beautiful prayer. Then, as the last rays of the descending sun flooded the western skies with glory, a flat covering of flowers was laid over the gentle physician's last resting place, and pale-faced women began to place the innumerable offerings to the dead.

When the sorrowful work was finished the flowers lay on the winter gross for several feet on all sides of the grave. Among the many handsome pieces was a great "Gates Ajar," surrounded by a white dove with outspread wings- the offering of the Graniteville Manufacturing Company; and another was a severe wreath of dark palm leaves raised on a stand. The straight and sombre lines of the wreath were lightened by a great cluster of pink carnations caught with tulle and at the base of the stand were the words, "The Graniteville Band." Another tribute was a large sheaf of waxen calla lilies bound with tulle on which in gold letters were the words, "Our Friend." The other tributes represented every phase of the city's population, and never have such magnificent flowers been seen at any grave.

Gates Ajar floral arrangement
popular at the time, but can we just say-- CREEPY?!?

A noticeable feature at the cemetery was the large group of colored people, who stood in a cluster to one side, their faces saddened and their heads bowed.

Yesterday morning the colored nurses went in a body to the Hickman home to express their respectful grief; and their faces were lengthened by sorrow and the eyes of many were reddened.

Never were a man's characteristics, universal kindness, humane charity,and splendid standing so plainly evidenced as in the grief of the varied crowd that stood about the grave of Dr. Charles W. Hickman yesterday afternoon in Summerville Cemetery.


Tuesday, July 11, 2017

Nefarious Hooligans

Why did I spend so much time talking about "The Terry?" Because- take a moment and think- when has it ever crossed your mind what it would be like to be an African-American in the South in 1910? As my friend put it, "It was fairly legal to lie when discussing blacks in those days."

And he is right. I imagined if there was something about myself that could not be changed- after about thirty seconds, the fact that I am a Catholic woman made me stop. While this is 2017, I am still not at the top of the food chain. There are plenty of derogatory words out there about women, but say one to my face, I have both the right and the ability to be angry. However, a white Catholic woman in 2017 is still not a negro [sic] in Georgia at the turn of the last century. My parents were not emancipated from slavery, rather- they attended college and provided an amazing life for me. I am not the first suspect in much of anything, unless it was who had the last glass of wine.

As a negro though, you were always the first suspect.

1910- William Howard Taft was president and we are less than 50 years past the Civil War. 50 years before 2017 was the conclusion of the Vietnam War.

Excerpts from an article dated February 3, 1910:

....

"Mr. Paul Langdon wanted the authorities to know that he had previously noted a negro [sic] acting in a very suspicious manner, as if trying to keep out of sight and carrying a suit case, going down the hill toward the Bon Air Hotel. He said that the negro [sic] walk slow as he passed Mr. Langdon, but no sooner had he reached a dark spot in the street, than he moved very horridly and continued to look back."

....

A more directly suspicious incident, however is related by Mr. W.G. Young, conductor of trolley No. 43 which goes out on the Monte Sano line and returns on the Summerville line. He says that four negro men-- all of them young and none over about 25 years of age-- got on his car at the Bon Air crossing, just one block below the street on which the crime was committed. Mr. Young noticed that the men were all drinking and appeared to be somewhat nervous. His attention was attracted to them, by their having been engaged in dividing silver money; two of the men sitting in a seat on one side of the aisle and the other two in a seat on the opposite side. The money was passed across the aisle by one of the negroes, whom Mr. Young noticed seemed to have a handful of quarter dollar pieces. These negroes road as far down as Marbury street where they left the car and went toward the river.


Fast forward 24 hours, the newspaper and crackerjack police officers announce:


Four Negroes on the Car

Conductor W.G. Young.....told of four nefarious negroes coming down on his car from the Hickman crossing to Marbury Street and their division of money on the car. Their connection with the case, however was set aside by subsequent testimony of Chief of Police Elliott who had thoroughly investigated the whereabouts of these negroes [sic]. He was absolutely satisfied they had no connection whatsoever with the case... 

The negroes who were seen on the street car had been able to show that they were on The Hill serenading the night the crime was committed and in that way had come into possession of the money they were dividing. As a matter of fact, he said, two of them reported to police headquarters themselves, having seen in the morning paper that they were under suspicion. 

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Five men were thrown under the mule drawn trolley by nothing more than the color of their skin. Four guys riding a trolley down the hill, dividing up money? Thugs. They could not have made that money themselves, it had to be stolen from a murdered doctor.

Some guy carrying a briefcase was seen by an upstanding citizen who, clearly, had eyes in the back of his head and knew that the man walked fast in the shadows and slow in the light? Murderer. PS- there were no street lights in 1910 and this was the moon cycle, please note 2/3/1910:


A 35% moon and the reminder that Estes Doremus needed to light a match to see Dr. Hickman's face do not equal a man being able to see another man run in the shadows.

This same day, February 4, 1910, Mayor Thomas Barrett Jr. issued a blanket order that the city be cleared of all vagrants. Based on this order, a man was arrested on the charge of vagrancy and held on suspicion as he could not account his means of livelihood for a period of some 60 days in a satisfactory manner. His punishment? Stockade.

Another nefarious hooligan, accosted a prominent physician of similar build to Dr. Hickman on Broad Street and asked for money, using "impressively suspicious language," the very day Dr. Hickman was murdered. Talk about bad timing...

Two men were pulled from cover during the morning hours in Grovetown... another party apprehended but he has not been seen as of "yet." (article dated 2/4/1910) Chief Elliott must have taught NCIS Agent Gibbs everything he knows, because he is quoted as saying, "When I do see him, I will know if he is the man we want."

Trusting the ole' gut is the best kind of police work out there.

Mr. T. S. Wells in North Augusta noted that a white man appeared at his kitchen door, supposedly a tramp but rather well dressed, demanding food. Mrs. Wells and her daughter were in the kitchen and prepared food for the man but he was gone before the police arrived. It is believed that this man might be connected to the murder of Dr. Hickman.

Finally, the one lead that to this novice detective is the most promising gathered the smallest amount of energy. In an article dated April 11, 2010:

In connection with the Hickman case: Shortly after the crime was committed some one informed the chief of Police that he or she had seen on the night of the assassination a person standing at the Gould corner in attire apparently the working clothing of a machinist. The police chief requests that the person who at the time gave hi this information again get in communication with him at as early an hour as possible."

April 11--  that's two months after the crime.

On and on are reports throughout the newspaper of men suspected of being the iniquitous murderer of the Golden Child of Summerville, the good doctor himself.

The first warrant will be issued for the arrest of a man February 11th, but we aren't there yet.






Sunday, July 9, 2017

Primer on The Terry

My grandfather was born in Augusta, the corner room of his mother's tea-room back in 1920. It was a boarding house she owned for medical students. The labor went so long that she invited the medical students in to witness the birth of James. Weighing in at over 13 pounds, he was the last baby my great grandmother would birth. And to think he wasn't the heaviest baby; Aunt Helen weighed 14 pounds.

Sometimes I think that my grandfather grew up very, very poor- he would say how he lived in the orphanage for a few years during the Great Depression as his family could not afford to care for him. Other times, I think he was on the wealthier side as he introduced me to his valet, an African-American gentleman who lived in a small house with no air conditioning and a television with bunny rabbit ears in the late 1980s.

This has nothing to do with my grandfather, rather where that tea room was located. On Railroad Avenue, just a step from the railroad tracks- those tracks being the only thing that separated my family from "The Terry." Short for "The Territory" or "The Verdery's Terry" was where the negroes [sic] of this time lived. It was loosely bound by 15th Street, Gwinnett Street and the train tracks. As late as 1938, the streets were still unpaved and there was no electricity. Imagine stepping back in time... and then stepping further back in time.

At the southeast corner of Gwinnett and 11th Street, the church of the Immaculate Conception provided mass for the Black Catholics of the area. My Southern Uncles, Griggs and Billy, were the only white babies to ever be baptized at the Immaculate Conception as that was the closest church to where their mother lived.

Southern Aunts and Uncles are those people called "Aunt" or "Uncle" who were not the parents' siblings. Griggs was my grandfather's nephew. That being said, Griggs' mother- James' oldest sister- raised my grandfather for several years.

I digress...

The Terry was on the southeast side of town and there were many, many churches there. All members of any church had to pay dues to offset funeral expenses of the departed members. Through The Terry, there were signs, misspelled and grammatically poor:

"Ugly but Honest" Grocery
"Char-coal for sail here" 
"Miners for fish bait here" [minnows]

The rank and file negroes [sic] of unskilled labor called "The Terry" home. The homes rented in 1938 for $5-$8.50/month with no electricity, but they did have running water. In the dollars of today, that would be $85-$150/month for running water and a leaky roof.

The last of my grandfather's generation died a few years ago and I wish I could just ask him a few more questions... Reaching out to Griggs, the next oldest family member, he recommended calling his oldest brother's widow, Mary. Mary lives in Pensacola and is 90 years old, making her 17 years younger than the Hickman murder. She's as close as I can get, so I set to call.

"Mary, I doubt you remember me, but please give me a moment and let me explain who I am..."
[your husband's uncle's granddaughter]

"Dahlin', how could I ever forget you and your precious brother? R-A-C-H-E-L. Do you remember that?"

I laugh, remembering the story from years ago-- all 4 years of me telling Mary that I could spell my name.

Mary's grandfather founded the Augusta Herald in the early 1890s. Today, she has 11 grandchildren and 11 great grandchildren. After some updates on my family, I tell her why I am calling.

"The Terry," a pause, "Oh yes. I know about it."

It was the way she said it that clearly gave me more information about The Terry than any research I could have done.

We went in and out of conversation about The Terry and little reminders of her family. She would say things like, "It ran along D'Antignac Street-- that was an old Augusta name from Colonial times and the American Revolution," "There was a murder almost every week in The Terry. Or maybe there was almost a murder every week? Regardless, we did not go down there."

Mary grew up over on Ellis Street, closer to Sacred Heart Catholic Church and not at the outskirts of The Terry. "Our black people were members of our family. They lived behind our church. They tore those dog trots down off 13th street years ago. Progress or something..." she trails off.

As we concluded our conversation, she told me that her people didn't say in Augusta and she said the nicest thing, I don't even think she knew what she was saying when she said it: "They could not tough it out like the Brennans did."

Those Brennans-- they're hard as nails and tough as rocks. Just ask any one of them.

Now, you know what I know about "The Terry" and we can get back to 1910 and Dr. Hickman's murder.

Hickman Correction

There will be many corrections, of that I am certain. But, I appreciate all the help and the extra eyes and those that know things I do not- so, please! IF you see an error, let me know!

Speaking of errors, I mentioned the other day that the Summerville Cemetery lost the sexton record and all the perpetual care money. I linked to a website on the Augusta government page as proof and maybe I was hoping somewhere along the way, someone would know something and VOILA! they would have their solution based on the modernness that is the world wide web.

Turns out, that what I said was true: The Summerville Cemetery lost the sexton record and the perpetual care money. But what I did not know is that there are two Summerville cemeteries. Did you know that? A friend in Chicago with rich ties to Augusta contacted me and pointed out my error.

She recommended I drive down Johns Road and it will take a sharp left on Fitten Street. On my right, there will be a graveyard.

And there was.

Twelve African American "Summer Hill" residents bought the 3.15 acres in 1906 for a black cemetery. And there it is, not just in black and white- but granite and marble behind a wrought iron fence. Driving down Fitten Street in my, ahem, really nice car with my two year old son in the backseat, I gawked at the cemetery and noticed the homes on the opposite side, most worth less than the car I was driving.


I hope I am not saying this in a way that makes me sound pretentious, rather I am trying to say it in a way that conveys the pause in me. Looking at the map above, my bearings become clear: the little cemetery is a five iron from the country club. One day, these dilapidated homes will be gone and very expensive homes will replace them, backed up to the golf course. Owners will sip mint juleps and regale guests that this used to be a part of town polite people didn't frequent.

But not today. Today, these homes are barely on the northside of habitable.

So, thanks for the correction! Onward I march!


Thursday, July 6, 2017

Hickman Murder, still on the scene

It's 1910 and we are on The Hill in the beautiful and tranquil village of Summerville. It is early February and Dr. Hickman has said his last good-bye to his baby brother.  As we sit in 1910, remember this is before electric lights and paved streets found their way to our fair village. 1910, two years after the first Model T Ford came off the assembly line in Michigan and when pneumonia and influenza were the second leading cause of death in the 46 states that comprised the U.S.

As the officials started piling on the scene, George Heckle- marshall for the Village of Summerville- immediately suggested calling in the local blood hounds. The dogs at camp were young and, most likely, not ready. Upon hearing this information, Mr. Berckmans [county commissioner] came in telephone communication with Chairman F B Pope and arranged for an automobile to be dispatched to McBean where the county had well trained dogs.

McBean in about 20 miles away and this is 1910. Google maps tells me that it would take half an hour today if I were to leave Milledge Road right now and head that way. Mr. Pope made the arrangements and the dogs would be in Augusta in three hours' time. Mr. Stringer, Detective Gay and the city detectives let the younger dogs on the scene to try and get the process started.

Was this a horrible mistake? I don't know. What I do know was that at 1:30am, the dogs from McBean arrived but failed to take the scent and the attempt to track the murderer was abandoned around 4am.

Scattered around Dr. Hickman were his silver thermometer and a pill case. Dr. Hickman's vest pockets were turned out as was his right pants pocket. Missing from his person was his gold watch, with the monogram "C.W.H" engraved on the side. The safety pin attaching the chain to his vest was ripped away. His jacket, with the pockets turned out, was picked up by Mr. Denny some fifty yards away in the middle of the vacant lot and handed over to Chief Elliott. Where the jacket was found, so were the footprints of the murderer, providing proof that he was running, of medium height, and average weight.

Those footprints ran to the back of the lot, to the fence at the back of Mr. T.I. Hickman's 'oat-patch.' The murderer jumped the fenced and the tracks showed plainly that he went through the oat patch continuing on to Mr. Burum's place and out to the street where they continue down the hill.

About 12 feet from the fence at the back of the vacant lot were a package of letters which had been taken from Dr. Hickman's pocket. A few feet beyond that another bunch of letters, also of Dr. Hickman's pocket. With this second batch of letters was a manuscript in Dr. Hickman's handwriting of some historical subject.

Hold on.

Did you just say T.I. Hickman? As in.... the brother? The baby brother he said good-bye to just a few minutes before he died?

Yes. Yes, I did.


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Nap time is coming to a close in this house, so I have to put a pin in this murder for now. Needless to say, there's much more to discuss and many ancient people will be brought into the spotlight.

I have a few phone calls ahead of me to local historians and 90-something relatives who grew up in Augusta. My little two have school starting next week and am hoping to make my way down to the warehouse of Augusta archives and see what kind of dirt I can find.

Thank you for all the interest!! It's nice to know that I am not a complete nerd on my own, we all carry a little secret nerd in us all.


Saturday, July 1, 2017

On the Hickman Scene

Augusta, 1910- before the stock market crashed and ten years before my grandfather was born.

Mr. William Johnson, rector of the Episcopal Church {I assume Good Shepherd Episcopal Church}, is walking towards his home on Milledge as he passes Dr. Hickman on the sidewalk in front of Dr. Harison's home about 9pm. Mr. Johnson remembers that Dr. Hickman was in possession of his overcoat, but it was draped over his arm. Dr. Hickman was walking from the direction of Monte Sano toward the Summerville carline. Not thinking anything of this, Mr. Johnson enters his home and continues with his evening. 

Just after 10pm, Frank Fraser, son of Reverend B. F. Fraser got off the street car at the corner of Milledge Street, walking home on the left side of the street. Halfway down the block, he passed the the Cochrane home and noticed a man lying on the sidewalk. His immediate thought was that this was a man in a drunken stupor. Frank leaned down to arouse the stupored man. Placing his hand on the still man's shoulder, he shook him.

Nothing.

Another shake, nothing.

Frank got down on his knees, took off his hat and put his ear to the man's chest. He found silence in the man's chest and noticed the the body was cold. Looking up, he saw two men coming toward him. Frank stood up and rushed towards what would be Mr. Estes Doremus and Mr. Hamilton Phinizy. Frank told them what was ahead and the three rushed toward the very dead Dr. Hickman. Striking a match, Mr. Doremus quickly identified the victim as Dr. Hickman.

Hamilton stayed with the body as Frank ran immediately to his father's house on the opposite edge of the oak grove to telephone the Augusta police barracks. The Reverend did not hear the gunshots, as he was reading to his children, however the family staying upstairs did hear the three shots. Hoping that medical attention could save him, Estes ran to Dr. W.H. Harison's house, where the good doctor was playing the piano for his family. Dr. Harison ran to the site and saw the body lying toward the edge of the sidewalk. 

Dr. Harison checked first for his pulse and finding none, saw the position of the gun shot wound and knew that there was nothing medical attention could have done to save Dr. Hickman. 

Within an hour the following people were on the scene: 

Acting Coroner Nurnberger
Mr. George Heckle, marshall of Summerville
Solicitor Joseph S. Reynolds
Dr. W.H. Harison
Mr. B.F. Fraser
Mr. A.D. Cochrane
Mr. Landon Thomas
Mr. Paul D. Langdon
Judge William F. Eve
County Commissioner Berckmans

It is in this moment that I feel compelled to share a generalization a friend who drives an ambulance told me about when driving through certain parts of town, "The Terry" if you will. [What's The Terry? We'll get there.] Funnily enough, my friends that are police officers have said the same thing. When there is a gun shot victim in this area, the cops and ambulance are called and you can set your watch to it- all witnesses are either reading the Bible, cooking food for the homeless, or praying with their children. Same with the victim. Nobody is ever doing anything nefarious. Ever.

If you notice some of these names and look back at the wedding announcement, there are a few repeats. 

After Dr. Harison confirmed complete loss of life, Tracy was finally notified. 

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Let's put a pin in this for a few, maybe a week?I really hope that is not anymore than that. I hate leaving you hanging, because I am leaving myself hanging. I am so excited, but I need to make sure that I give the most accurate information and need to go to some serious warehouse archives to see if I can find some necessary files. 107 years old... don't hold your breath.